USA - The United states of America
USA - Spojené státy

Maturita z angličtiny má i konverzační témata, na která je třeba se dobře připravit. V této lekci se zaměříme na The United states of America a podíváme se na vzorové ukázky krátké promluvy na toto téma, užitečných frází a doplňujících otázek. Otázky vám pomůžou při tvoření bodové osnovy právě pro téma: USA - Spojené státy

Jak na to ?

  • pokuste se říci pár slov o Spojených státek a o tom, jak je vnímáte
  • popište krátce jejich geografii a historii, dotkněte se zajímavých bodů, ale nepouštějte se do podrobností
  • pokuste se navázat na osobní zkušenost, pocit nebo zkušenost někoho z vašich blízkých
  • pokud se vám podaří z toho vyvodit i nějaký závěr nebo pointu, bude to ideální

Co radíme ?

  • z následujících otázek a vzorových odpovědí si sestavte bodovou osnovu
  • podle osnovy si trénujte vyprávění a snažte se přemýšlet o tom, co říkáte
  • v žádném případě se nepokoušejte učit nějaké pasáže textu nazpaměť nebo vytvářet komplikovaná souvětí
  • celé vyprávění musí být na takové úrovni a takové obtížnosti, abyste byli schopni jej kdykoliv zopakovat


The USA is a federation  of 50 states, Rhode Island and the District of Columbia being the smallest. It neighbours on Canada in the north and on Mexico in the south – the Rio Grande forms the border with Mexico. The USA also includes Alaska on the very north of the continent and the Hawaii Island in the Pacifik Ocean, plus associate states with their own governments (Puerto Rico, North Marianas..) and the US autonomous regions (the Virgin Islands, Guam and some more). The US are so large that there are four time zones.



The USA has a varied landscape. In particular, the West is quite mountainous – the mountain ranges include Sierra Nevada, the Cascade Range and the Cordilleras, and occupy half of the continental area of the US including the Rocky Mountains in Colorado and the Great Canon. In the middle of it, there are the Interior Plains that make up two thirds of the country. The East contains plateaus or lowlands such as the Mississippi Lowland. Yet, even this part of the country contains some mountains such as the Apalachian Mountains which are geographically the oldest range in the US, and the Atlantic Plain and the Allegheny Mountains.

The highest peak is Mt McKinley – 6,194m.


The longest river is Mississippi, called ,, the father of water“. It is also the 3 rd longest river in the world after the Amazon and the Nile. It´s tributaries are the Missouri, the Ohio and the Arkansas. Like the St Lawrence and the Rio Grande, they flow into the Atlantic Ocean. 

Other American rivers: the Colorado, the Columbia, the Snake and the Niagara with the famous Niagara Falls on the border with Canada. The Hudson River flows into the Great Lakes in the east. The Great Lakes are situated on the border with Canada. There are five of them altogether – Superior is 2 nd largest in the world after the Caspian Sea, Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, Lake Erie and Lake Ontario.


In the north, the climate is mild, though because of the Labrador Current i tis much colder than chat we know in our country. The southern part of the US lies in the subtropical zone. Florida, the Gulf of Mexico and the Hawaii are located in the tropical zone. Alaska is naturely the coldest area as it lies in the arctic zone.

The national parks

The US has resolved to keep its own natural beauty, so it has established many national parks. For example – Death Valley Desert, Yellowstone, Grand Canon, Yosemite, Sequoia, Everglades.

The population 

The number of inhabitants is around 298 milion. As a land of immigrants, the American population is very diverse. The history of slavery and colonization has also contributed significatly to the ethnic diversity of US citizens.

The people in the US including Aleuts, Eskimos, and Native Americans of different tribes. More than 80 % of the population is white European ancestry, 13 % is African American, then Hispanic and Asian and Pacifik Islanders.

The national language / oficiální jazyk:

Official language of the US is English. In states with a high percentage of Hispanics (such as Kalifornia, Texas and New York) a growing number of people speak Spanish. In these states, many schools are bilingual and children are taught in both Spanish and English.


Religion and the freedom of religion play an extremely important role in the US. Most religious people are protestant (60%) including episcopalians, baptists, mormons or members of other wings of Christian fundamentalists. Catholics make up 21%, next there are atheists, Jews and a small number of people of some of the other religions such as Buddhists, Hindus, Muslims and some of the Christian religions.

The symbols

The National flag consists of 2 oblongs. It is a smaller blue oblong with 50 white stars symbolizing 50 states and one larger oblong consisting of 6 white and 7 red stripes symbolizing the originál 13 colonies. It is often called "Old Glory"or ,"Stars and Stripes". The national anthem is called "The Star-Spangled Banner."


The US has one of the strongest economies in the world. the American dollar is used for trade in countries across the globe. The US is a leading country in agriculture, in the chemici, machinery industries and cars and in minerals and raw materials.


Agriculture plays a major role in the US economy. The quality of soil in North America is excellent. The US produces the majority of the world's corn, soybeans, tomatoes, ganges, apples and tobacco. In the Hawaii (state in Mid-Pacific, southwest of san Francisco) there are famous suger cane and pineapple plantations. Prairie dogs are very frequent and of course wolves and grizzlies in Alaska.

The mineral resources 

The USA is very rich in mineral resources. There are vast deposit sof gold, silver, platinum and petroleum mainly in Alaska. Petroleum and natural gas is produced in huge amounts in Texas, Oklahoma and in the Gulf of Mexiko. It has one of the world's largest resources of coal, concentrated in the Appalachian mountains and Lake Michigan. The US's main trading partners are Canada, Japan, Mexico, Great Britain and Germany.

The american congress 

The Congress consists of two houses: the senate and the House of Representatives. They are both responsible for the drafting and passing of laws, handling matters of national finance, ensuring the defence of the nation, regulativ commerce and admitting new states to the Union. 

The political system 

The US is a federation consisting of 50 states, one federal distrikt, where you can find the capital, and other territorie. In the American democratic systém, rights and powers are divided between the individual states and federal government. The federal government has three branches: executive power (the President and Executive office), legislative power (both house sof Congress), judiciary power (the Supreme Court and all other Federal courts). These three branches are designed to check and balance the others, so on branch has too much power in the federál government.

The president's powers 

The President is elected for a four year term and may only be elected twice. The President is the Commander-in-Chef of the Army Forces. The President also appoints all ambassadors, ministers, and conculs. The Executive Office consists of the President's personal staff and the employees of all fourteen cabinet departments. 

The American Government 

Each state has its own government and makes its own laws concerning sales taxes, education, speed limits, environmental protection, unemployment benefits, gambling, drinking and divorce. Federal laws apply to all states and citizens. The Federal government controls national taxes and the armed forces. 

Two parties dominate American politics – the Democratic Party and the Republican Party. US citizens must be 18 years old to vote.

Washington D.C.

Is the capital of the US and seat of the federal government. Washington is not a state (though quite often i tis called one of the US states), it is federal district under the direct jurisdiction of the Congress. Congress meets in the Kapitol, in the centre of the city. The President works and lives nearby in the White House.

History / historie:

The Icelandic Vikings were probably the first. 

The incorrect name Indians comes from the time of Christopher Columbus, an Italian navigator serving the Spanish King and Queen, who arrived in America in 1492, thinking this was the Indian Coast of Asia.

America is called after Amerigo Vespucci, another Italian explorer.

States of USA

Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming

20 otázek na téma USA - The United states of America

Zkuste si v rámci přípravy odpovědět na následující otázky a použijte vše, co jste se dověděli v předchozích lekcích:

  1. What is your favourite shop and why do you like it?
  2. What don't you like about shopping?
  3. Do you like shopping on the Internet?
  4. Which is the most popular place to shop in your hometown?
  5. What kind of shops does it have?
  6. Do you like to pay with a credit card or with cash?
  7. If you had 1 million euros, what would you buy?
  8. What is something you would like to buy?
  9. Is it difficult for you to choose what to buy?
  10. Do you like to buy things for other people?
  11. What things do you dislike shopping for?
  12. What was the last thing you bought for someone else?
  13. Do you prefer large department stores or small boutiques?
  14. Do you prefer to go shopping on your own or with others?
  15. Who do you like to go shopping with?
  16. When you buy something, do you "shop around" and go to many stores to compare prices?
  17. When you buy something, what is most important to you: price, quality or fashion trend?
  18. Do you like to try on an item of clothing before you buy it?
  19. What is better as a present, to give money or to buy something?
  20. What gifts do you like to buy?

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kontrolní otázky

Kontrolní otázky...

  • The United States consists of ... states.
    • nice try
    • YES, correct
    • a bit too many
  • The Statue of Liberty was ...
    • yes, the French were very kind
    • was not neccessary to pay
    • sorry, that's not true
  • Washington, D.C. is the American capital. What do the two letters "D.C." means?
    • Yes, correct
    • come one, this is not right
    • no, sorry
  • What are the names of the major American political parties?
    • a bit of a mix with the UK, sorry
    • of course! correct
    • there are just two main parties
  • When was the Declaration of Independence signed?
    • sorry, it was a year later
    • good job!
    • ???


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